In 1796, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasture derived the term vaccine. He was pioneer of cow pox vaccine which is used to prevent small pox infections. Vaccine can be manufactured by the living organisms or other biological systems that can improve immunity to a particular disease. Vaccine can provoke our immune system to invade from many diseases. Inhalation, Injection and intake of vaccines are called vaccination. There are two types of immunization: Active and passive immunization. Passive immunization is achieved either by natural process such as transfer of maternal antibody across the placenta to developing fetus or by injecting a recipient with a preformed antibody. On the other hand, Active immunization is acquired by inoculation with pathogen that induces immunity but don’t cause any disease. Not even bacteria, fungi are used for the production of vaccine but transgenic plants are also identified as important system for vaccine production. Banana used as expression system for the development of human vaccine against Hepatitis B.

Children are recommended to receive vaccination before the development of immune system to provide the best protection and to eliminate the risk of disease. Center for disease control and prevention provide vaccination for children against many disease hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, mumps, measles, rubella, Diphtheria, Tetanus, chickenpox, influenza and pneumonia. Now many boosters and vaccines are developed for pregnant mother, adolescents and adults to prevent and invade from pathogen. Vaccinations of animals are also very crucial both to prevent their diseases and also to prevent transmission of disease to humans.

There have huge scope for prospective students in the biotechnology industry like drug discovery and research because it is one of the fastest growing knowledge based industry in India. Top biotech companies in India that provide opportunities and valuable experience to enhance their practical skills and knowledge. Bharat Immunological and Biological Corporation Limited (Bulandshahr, Uttar Pradesh) is one of those reputed company which can provide great platform for accomplished students because this company manufacture and produces a range of pharmaceutical products such as oral Polio vaccine, Zinc tablet and Diarrhea management kit etc. Aim of this company is to prevent the millions of children from unavoidable disability through Polio vaccines. Most of the other top companies are Biocon, Serum Institute of India, Panacea Biotech and Dr. Reddy’s Laboratory Ltd etc. Indian Government is also supporting to drug discovery and research by providing financial assistance and non-financial incentives at both central and state level.


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