Stem cells are “blank” or undifferentiated cells which makes them unique. They can develop into cells that serve a number of functions in different parts of the body. Most of the cells in our bodies are differentiated and can serve only one function. For instance, red blood cells have the unique capability to carry oxygen through blood but cannot function in any other way. Stem cell therapy has immense potential and to build a career in the field one must join the right course in B.Sc. Biotech College in Greater Noida. Stem cells have the capability to divide and make an infinite number of copies of themselves.
When the stem cells divide they can either remain stem cells or become differentiated serving specific function like red blood cells or muscle cells. We can study stem cells to understand how complex organisms develop from the fertilized egg. How they divide and develop into different types of tissue with specific functions.
Stem cells for treatment of diseases
The unique capability of stem cells is used in the treatment of extensive burns. It is also used to restore the blood system in leukemia patients. The stem cells hold the potential to replace cells that are lost due to devastating diseases that do not have any sustainable cure at present.
The potential of applying stem cells for generating tissue and organ grafts holds tremendous promise. When the tissues are developed from the patient’s own stem cells, the chances of graft rejection reduces significantly. Stem cell therapy has been used in the treatment of spinal cord injuries, diabetes, burns, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis etc.
The importance of Stem Cells
Stem cells are the best available tools for disease research and have great potential for use in the clinic. Some adult stem cells have been used for therapy but they have their limitations. The research continues and holds great promise when stem cells can be used properly for treating many diseases that do not have a sustainable cure at present. Currently, the research is also being done on transdifferentiation of cells which involves converting of one specific type of cells to another specific type. Best college for BSc in Greater Noida offers different courses in these streams.
Types of Stem Cells
All stem cells do not come from an early embryo. Stem cells are found in our bodies all through our lives and aid in repairing tissues. Stem cells can be categorized into three different types.
1. Embryonic stem cells – These stem cells are grown in the laboratory after obtaining them from the early embryo.
2. Induced pluripotent stem cells – These can also be called as “reprogrammed” stem cells. They are obtained from adult specialized cells but made similar to embryonic stem cells using laboratory technique developed in 2006.
3. Tissue stem cells – these are present in our bodies all through our lives.
Stem Cells For Bone Regeneration
The skeletal system of humans comprises of approximately 206 bones apart from the extensive network of ligaments, cartilage, and tendons. Though the bone is hard, it is a metabolically active organ. It is constantly in the process known as bone remodeling. The two main cell types present in the bones are osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
The osteoblasts are to be found on the surface of the bone and are involved in forming the bone matrix. Osteoclasts, on the other hand, are bone-destroying cells and aid in removal of mineralized bone. Whenever this balance is disturbed, damage occurs to the bone structure.
Mesenchymal stem cells or progenitor cells are found in the adult bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, skin, and placenta. These stem cells can be used for many therapeutic applications including bone and cartilage regeneration.
Stem cell therapy has immense potential for human health and treatment. Extensive research work continues on stem cell continues, however, they have been some controversy on the development, usage and destroying of human embryos. Scientists are working to change this and may be able to use adult stem cells for growing pluripotent stem cells which can eliminate the need for embryonic stem cells which will pave way for use of stem cells for successful treatment of many conditions and diseases in humans. Top B.Sc. Biotech College in Greater Noida offer courses in biotechnology and studying can help the aspirants who want to build a career in stem cell therapy.
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