Solar energy is a radiant source of heat that causes natural process upon which all creatures depends. Solar a word associated with our day to day life to make the life much more relaxed, brightened, and energetic. Rapid transformation of a country cannot be carried out without having a well planned and developed infrastructure. Civil engineers the mastermind of construction had provided a new dimension to the houses combined with solar energy termed as Solar buildings. Basically in these solar buildings the energy is converted or collected at any possible location at any particular instant and then made to use for the different other purposes in that building.
Solar buildings are basically classified under two categories – Active and Passive solar buildings.
Active solar buildings use the mechanical or electrical devices such as fans or pumps to make the movement possible from collectors to storage or storage to the collectors. Many a times the panels provided termed as photovoltaic collect the solar energy and then convert it in a form of electrical energy is an important example of active solar system.
Now, the most prominent system in use is the Passive solar buildings. In these types of buildings there is a particular design which consists of glass fitted to the walls. In these passive buildings design- The walls, windows, floors are made to collect , store, and distribute the collected solar energy in the form of heat in the required arena . In this system the mechanical or electrical devices are not used.
The heat load analysis of the buildings are to be conducted using these criterias-
-Thermal mass materials should not exceed 6 inches.
-The cavities of concrete blocks to be filled concrete as that act as thermal storage.
-Dark colour for masonry floors and light colours for lightweight walls, thermal mass walls of any colour.
-Surface area of mass exposed to the direct sunlight should be 9 times the area of glazing.
-Thermal mass floors should not be covered with wall to wall carpeting.
The specific considerations during design of solar buildings is the sun path at that particular site, insolation i.e. sunshine and the latitude. The seasonal variations in solar gain, humidity, variations in temperature, micro climate details related to the humidity, vegetation, and contours, obstructions in the path.
The design parameters of residential buildings consist of examining the orientation, internal door and wall dimensions, building dimension along the east/west axis should be extended, most appropriate amount and type of insulation, Thermal mass to store excess solar energy during the winter season which can be then re-radiated during the night.This solar buildings are highly efficient. Direct-gain systems can utilize or convert it into useful heat 65-70% of the energy of solar radiation that strikes the aperture or collector.
So, it can be said that solar buildings is the ice on the cake for the Civil engineering sector with lots and lots of job opportunities. It’s a master stroke innovation in the field making the maximum possible use of solar energy to cater all the daily needs of a house. In the present market scenario as far as world tends to grow their will be no dearth of Civil Engineering jobs and solar buildings is slowly and steadily making its presence felt in the sector with minimum losses and maximum gains. This fruitful relation between the two can make any country gospel to the path of unimaginable development.
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