Bachelor of technology (B.tech ) is all about “how to transform science to reality and enjoy the fruits of it”. Science is the study of the physical world; while electronics engg. applies scientific knowledge to design processes; structure or equipment. Engineering is applied science; it is a subset of science. Gradually Optical plays a vital role in the advances of electronics engineering. Some important facts and figures of optical world are further discussed briefly.
Optical networks in engineering have become an indispensable part of modern information society. They support the ever-growing need for bandwidth to carry the increasing amount of information. Whether it is the volume of packetized voice, television broadcast, or data exchange, the growth is evident and the capacity of optical networks has to follow. This trend has led to an introduction of numerous new optical technologiesin Electronics engineering. In order to provide the required bandwidth, three directions have been pursued. One of them is increasing the number of channels carried on a single ﬁber. Another is a reduction of spacing between the channels and the third one is the increased bit rate of individual channels. In the current state of development, the transition from 10 to 40 Gb/s systems with high spectral efficiency calls for the implementation of new concepts in optical networks.
Because it is becoming difficult to process all channels electronically at high bit rates in every network node, transparent domains and all-optical signal processing are being introduced. This reduces the need for optoelectronic interfaces, which are impractical at bit rates of 40 Gb/s due to the complexity of the clock recovery and the limitations in integration of the electronic systems operating at such high frequencies. The transparent approach has an added advantage of providing edibility in terms of signal speed and, to a certain extent, modulation format.
A transparent optical network employing sophisticated modulation formats presents a new set of challenges to be faced in the design process. Because the physical tolerances for components and transmission parameters in high-speed, dense wavelength-division multiplexed (DWDM) systems are narrow, signal performance has to be monitored. Monitoring must be continuous because the signals alter their paths during switching and the transmission conditions undergo frequent changes. Conventionally, the performance supervision has been done in the electronic domain, where the quality of signal can be accessed through counting erroneous bits or frames.
However, in a transparent network, electrical interfaces exist only at the ingress and egress nodes. Hence, transmission between the intermediate nodes is done exclusively in the optical domain. Therefore, optical performance monitoring (OPM) is considered as an alternative to electronic monitoring. OPM not only allows supervising the quality of signal in a transparent environment, but also gives new possibilities through distinction of signal impairment origin. As optical networks continue to grow towards high capacity and high ﬂexibility, new transmission technologies are being introduced. In order to maintain the quality of signal and control over network in the transparent domains, optical performance monitoring (OPM) systems are becoming more important.
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