The growing needs and aspirations in the world are acquiring new dimensions and perspective especially for the Civil Engineering sectors. The world is integrating into a more globalized society where a multi lateral approach is the demand of hour, justifying the very concept of development through varied prisms. One such marvellous example of Civil Engineering is the tallest standing structure on Earth i.e. Burj khalifa also known as Burj dubai situated in Dubai. It is the tallest skyscraper in the world since its creation in the year 2008.
The total height of Burj khalifa is nearly 2800 feet and the roof height of 2717 feet. The Burj khalifa primary structure is reinforced concrete. It is designed to be the centre piece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The Y shaped tripartite floor geometry is designed to optimize residential and commercial space. The buttressed central core and the wings provided are used to support the height of the building. The Burj khalifa centralized core houses all the vertical transportation with the stairs of the egress types being an exception. The design of Burj khalifa uses half the amount of steel used in the construction of the empire state using the tubular system of design.
As the tower rises from the desert having a flat base, it follows a spiralling pattern of 27 setbacks. The cross section of the tower decreases as it reaches towards the sky. An alignment is properly designed so that setbacks can be arranged and minimize the vibration wind loading from eddy current. The central core emerges at the top and is forming a finishing spire. The sway of 1.5m is provided at the tallest point .Vanity space is provided at the top of the structure.
The 828-metre Burj Khalifa is provided with a spire of 244 meter which is also termed as Burj khalifa of its own. The spire alone is composed of more than 5000 tonnes of the structural steel. The central pinnacle pipe weighs 400 tonnes and has a height of nearly 700 ft and the spire also has the communication equipments.
It is provided with the cladding system which itself consists of more than 27000 reflective glass panels and aluminium and stainless steel panels. The structure is provided with the anti-glare shield as the structure is prone to extreme desert temperatures, intense desert sun, and strong winds. The total glass covers more than 2,000,000 sq ft. The burj khalifa water system supplies an average of 956,000 L of water per day through 150 km pipeline and uses gravity system to collect the waste water from the restaurants, hotels, plumbing fixtures, floor drains etc.
Over 45,000 m3 of concrete were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation which compromises of nearly 198 piles where the dimension of each pipe being 1,5 meter in diameter and length being 43 m long buried more than the distance of 50m depth. The design of foundation is such that it can withstand a total weight of approximately 450000 tonnes. The cathodic protection is provided under the concrete to neutralize the groundwater and prevent corrosion of the materials. Special mixes of concrete are made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight as is typical with the reinforced concrete construction. Creep and shrinkage testing for the structural analysis of the building was properly checked and considered.
The consistency of the concrete was the most important criteria as it was difficult to create a concrete to withstand thousands of tones bearing down to it and that too when the gulf temperature can lead to 50°C. To counter attack this shortcoming the concrete was not poured during the day, instead during the summer season, the mixture was made and ice was added to it and was done during the night when the air is cooler and humidity is higher. The cooler concrete mixture cures evenly throughout and therefore less likely to set quickly.
The Burj khalifa holds several records such as tallest existing structure, tallest skyscraper, tallest structure ever built, Tallest freestanding structure etc. The structure consists of rooms, restaurants, parks, base jumping, observation decks, conferences halls etc.
Adding a new definition to the Brick and mortar i.e. the Civil Engineering this structure has already outclassed the other existing structures all across the Globe. This sector is having an immense potential as today’s world is eyeing themselves in cutting edge and work class infrastructure to be in pace with the changing global reality and Burj Khalifa is a live example of the trademark Civil Engineers had set in this current scenario.
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